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python:ipython

IPython


本家: Jupyter and the future of IPython — IPython
ソースコード: GitHub - ipython/ipython: Official repository for IPython itself. Other repos in the IPython organization contain things like the website, documentation builds, etc.

IPython (アイパイソン) は Python を対話的に実行するためのシェルである。CPython 内蔵の対話的に実行するためのシェルと比べ、型推定を強化し、対話的実行のための文法を追加してあり、コード・ハイライティングおよびタブによる補完が行える。IPython は SciPy パッケージの一部として公開されている。
IPython - Wikipedia より

インストール

Linux

$ pip3 install ipython

Windows

> pip install ipython
Collecting ipython
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/a6/2c/c7d44277b599df35af734d8f4142d501192fdb7aef5d04daf882d7eccfbc/ipython
-7.6.1-py3-none-any.whl (774kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 778kB 664kB/s
Collecting prompt-toolkit<2.1.0,>=2.0.0 (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/f7/a7/9b1dd14ef45345f186ef69d175bdd2491c40ab1dfa4b2b3e4352df719ed7/prompt_
toolkit-2.0.9-py3-none-any.whl (337kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 337kB 1.1MB/s
Collecting pygments (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/5c/73/1dfa428150e3ccb0fa3e68db406e5be48698f2a979ccbcec795f28f44048/Pygment
s-2.4.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl (883kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 890kB 1.6MB/s
Collecting decorator (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/5f/88/0075e461560a1e750a0dcbf77f1d9de775028c37a19a346a6c565a257399/decorat
or-4.4.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting backcall (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/84/71/c8ca4f5bb1e08401b916c68003acf0a0655df935d74d93bf3f3364b310e0/backcal
l-0.1.0.tar.gz
Collecting jedi>=0.10 (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/4e/06/e906725a5b3ad7996bbdbfe9958aab75db64ef84bbaabefe47574de58865/jedi-0.
14.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (1.0MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 1.0MB 1.8MB/s
Requirement already satisfied: setuptools>=18.5 in c:\python37\lib\site-packages (from ipython) (40.8.0)
Collecting pickleshare (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/9a/41/220f49aaea88bc6fa6cba8d05ecf24676326156c23b991e80b3f2fc24c77/pickles
hare-0.7.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting colorama; sys_platform == "win32" (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/4f/a6/728666f39bfff1719fc94c481890b2106837da9318031f71a8424b662e12/coloram
a-0.4.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting traitlets>=4.2 (from ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/93/d6/abcb22de61d78e2fc3959c964628a5771e47e7cc60d53e9342e21ed6cc9a/traitle
ts-4.3.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl (74kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 81kB 1.7MB/s
Collecting six>=1.9.0 (from prompt-toolkit<2.1.0,>=2.0.0->ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/73/fb/00a976f728d0d1fecfe898238ce23f502a721c0ac0ecfedb80e0d88c64e9/six-1.1
2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting wcwidth (from prompt-toolkit<2.1.0,>=2.0.0->ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/7e/9f/526a6947247599b084ee5232e4f9190a38f398d7300d866af3ab571a5bfe/wcwidth
-0.1.7-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting parso>=0.5.0 (from jedi>=0.10->ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/a3/bd/bf4e5bd01d79906e5b945a7af033154da49fd2b0d5b5c705a21330323305/parso-0
.5.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (95kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 102kB 2.0MB/s
Collecting ipython-genutils (from traitlets>=4.2->ipython)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/fa/bc/9bd3b5c2b4774d5f33b2d544f1460be9df7df2fe42f352135381c347c69a/ipython
_genutils-0.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Installing collected packages: six, wcwidth, prompt-toolkit, pygments, decorator, backcall, parso, jedi, pickleshare, colorama,
ipython-genutils, traitlets, ipython
  Running setup.py install for backcall ... done
Successfully installed backcall-0.1.0 colorama-0.4.1 decorator-4.4.0 ipython-7.6.1 ipython-genutils-0.2.0 jedi-0.14.1 parso-0.5.
1 pickleshare-0.7.5 prompt-toolkit-2.0.9 pygments-2.4.2 six-1.12.0 traitlets-4.3.2 wcwidth-0.1.7

IPython の動作確認

Linux

$ ipython

Windows

> ipython
Python 3.7.4 (tags/v3.7.4:e09359112e, Jul  8 2019, 20:34:20) [MSC v.1916 64 bit (AMD64)]
Type 'copyright', 'credits' or 'license' for more information
IPython 7.6.1 -- An enhanced Interactive Python. Type '?' for help.

In [1]: ?

IPython -- An enhanced Interactive Python
=========================================

IPython offers a fully compatible replacement for the standard Python
interpreter, with convenient shell features, special commands, command
history mechanism and output results caching.

At your system command line, type 'ipython -h' to see the command line
options available. This document only describes interactive features.

GETTING HELP
------------

Within IPython you have various way to access help:

  ?         -> Introduction and overview of IPython's features (this screen).
  object?   -> Details about 'object'.
  object??  -> More detailed, verbose information about 'object'.
  %quickref -> Quick reference of all IPython specific syntax and magics.
  help      -> Access Python's own help system.

If you are in terminal IPython you can quit this screen by pressing `q`.


MAIN FEATURES
-------------

* Access to the standard Python help with object docstrings and the Python
  manuals. Simply type 'help' (no quotes) to invoke it.

* Magic commands: type %magic for information on the magic subsystem.

* System command aliases, via the %alias command or the configuration file(s).

* Dynamic object information:

  Typing ?word or word? prints detailed information about an object. Certain
  long strings (code, etc.) get snipped in the center for brevity.

  Typing ??word or word?? gives access to the full information without
  snipping long strings. Strings that are longer than the screen are printed
  through the less pager.

  The ?/?? system gives access to the full source code for any object (if
  available), shows function prototypes and other useful information.

  If you just want to see an object's docstring, type '%pdoc object' (without
  quotes, and without % if you have automagic on).

* Tab completion in the local namespace:

  At any time, hitting tab will complete any available python commands or
  variable names, and show you a list of the possible completions if there's
  no unambiguous one. It will also complete filenames in the current directory.

* Search previous command history in multiple ways:

  - Start typing, and then use arrow keys up/down or (Ctrl-p/Ctrl-n) to search
    through the history items that match what you've typed so far.

  - Hit Ctrl-r: opens a search prompt. Begin typing and the system searches
    your history for lines that match what you've typed so far, completing as
    much as it can.

  - %hist: search history by index.

* Persistent command history across sessions.

* Logging of input with the ability to save and restore a working session.

* System shell with !. Typing !ls will run 'ls' in the current directory.

* The reload command does a 'deep' reload of a module: changes made to the
  module since you imported will actually be available without having to exit.

* Verbose and colored exception traceback printouts. See the magic xmode and
  xcolor functions for details (just type %magic).

* Input caching system:

  IPython offers numbered prompts (In/Out) with input and output caching. All
  input is saved and can be retrieved as variables (besides the usual arrow
  key recall).

  The following GLOBAL variables always exist (so don't overwrite them!):
  _i: stores previous input.
  _ii: next previous.
  _iii: next-next previous.
  _ih : a list of all input _ih[n] is the input from line n.

  Additionally, global variables named _i<n> are dynamically created (<n>
  being the prompt counter), such that _i<n> == _ih[<n>]

  For example, what you typed at prompt 14 is available as _i14 and _ih[14].

  You can create macros which contain multiple input lines from this history,
  for later re-execution, with the %macro function.

  The history function %hist allows you to see any part of your input history
  by printing a range of the _i variables. Note that inputs which contain
  magic functions (%) appear in the history with a prepended comment. This is
  because they aren't really valid Python code, so you can't exec them.

* Output caching system:

  For output that is returned from actions, a system similar to the input
  cache exists but using _ instead of _i. Only actions that produce a result
  (NOT assignments, for example) are cached. If you are familiar with
  Mathematica, IPython's _ variables behave exactly like Mathematica's %
  variables.

  The following GLOBAL variables always exist (so don't overwrite them!):
  _ (one underscore): previous output.
  __ (two underscores): next previous.
  ___ (three underscores): next-next previous.

  Global variables named _<n> are dynamically created (<n> being the prompt
  counter), such that the result of output <n> is always available as _<n>.

  Finally, a global dictionary named _oh exists with entries for all lines
  which generated output.

* Directory history:

  Your history of visited directories is kept in the global list _dh, and the
  magic %cd command can be used to go to any entry in that list.

* Auto-parentheses and auto-quotes (adapted from Nathan Gray's LazyPython)

  1. Auto-parentheses

     Callable objects (i.e. functions, methods, etc) can be invoked like
     this (notice the commas between the arguments)::

         In [1]: callable_ob arg1, arg2, arg3

     and the input will be translated to this::

         callable_ob(arg1, arg2, arg3)

     This feature is off by default (in rare cases it can produce
     undesirable side-effects), but you can activate it at the command-line
     by starting IPython with `--autocall 1`, set it permanently in your
     configuration file, or turn on at runtime with `%autocall 1`.

     You can force auto-parentheses by using '/' as the first character
     of a line.  For example::

          In [1]: /globals             # becomes 'globals()'

     Note that the '/' MUST be the first character on the line!  This
     won't work::

          In [2]: print /globals    # syntax error

     In most cases the automatic algorithm should work, so you should
     rarely need to explicitly invoke /. One notable exception is if you
     are trying to call a function with a list of tuples as arguments (the
     parenthesis will confuse IPython)::

          In [1]: zip (1,2,3),(4,5,6)  # won't work

     but this will work::

          In [2]: /zip (1,2,3),(4,5,6)
          ------> zip ((1,2,3),(4,5,6))
          Out[2]= [(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)]

     IPython tells you that it has altered your command line by
     displaying the new command line preceded by -->.  e.g.::

          In [18]: callable list
          -------> callable (list)

  2. Auto-Quoting

     You can force auto-quoting of a function's arguments by using ',' as
     the first character of a line.  For example::

          In [1]: ,my_function /home/me   # becomes my_function("/home/me")

     If you use ';' instead, the whole argument is quoted as a single
     string (while ',' splits on whitespace)::

          In [2]: ,my_function a b c   # becomes my_function("a","b","c")
          In [3]: ;my_function a b c   # becomes my_function("a b c")

     Note that the ',' MUST be the first character on the line!  This
     won't work::

          In [4]: x = ,my_function /home/me    # syntax error

In [2]:

IPythonの導入(古い資料です)

  1. pip を利用する場合、以下のコマンドを実行する。
    > pip install ipython pyreadline
    Downloading/unpacking ipython
      Downloading ipython-0.12.1.tar.gz (4.3Mb): 4.3Mb downloaded
      Running setup.py egg_info for package ipython
    
        no previously-included directories found matching 'IPython\deathrow'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'IPython\frontend\html\notebook\static\mathjax'
        warning: no files found matching 'IPython\.git_commit_info.ini'
        warning: no previously-included files found matching 'docs\#*'
        warning: no previously-included files found matching 'docs\man\*.1.gz'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\attic'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\build'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\gh-pages'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\dist'
        warning: no previously-included files matching '*~' found anywhere in distribution
        warning: no previously-included files matching '*.flc' found anywhere in distribution
        warning: no previously-included files matching '*.pyo' found anywhere in distribution
        warning: no previously-included files matching '.dircopy.log' found anywhere in distribution
    Downloading/unpacking pyreadline
      Downloading pyreadline-2.0-dev1.zip (109Kb): 109Kb downloaded
      Running setup.py egg_info for package pyreadline
    
        package init file 'pyreadline\configuration\__init__.py' not found (or not a regular file)
    Installing collected packages: ipython, pyreadline
      Running setup.py install for ipython
    
        no previously-included directories found matching 'IPython\deathrow'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'IPython\frontend\html\notebook\static\mathjax'
        warning: no files found matching 'IPython\.git_commit_info.ini'
        warning: no previously-included files found matching 'docs\#*'
        warning: no previously-included files found matching 'docs\man\*.1.gz'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\attic'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\build'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\gh-pages'
        no previously-included directories found matching 'docs\dist'
        warning: no previously-included files matching '*~' found anywhere in distribution
        warning: no previously-included files matching '*.flc' found anywhere in distribution
        warning: no previously-included files matching '*.pyo' found anywhere in distribution
        warning: no previously-included files matching '.dircopy.log' found anywhere in distribution
        Installing ipcontroller-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipcontroller.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipcontroller.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing iptest-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing iptest.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing iptest.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipcluster-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipcluster.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipcluster.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipython-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipython.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipython.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing pycolor-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing pycolor.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing pycolor.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing iplogger-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing iplogger.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing iplogger.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing irunner-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing irunner.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing irunner.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipengine-script.py script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipengine.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipengine.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipython-qtconsole-script.pyw script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipython-qtconsole.exe script to C:\Python27\Scripts
        Installing ipython-qtconsole.exe.manifest script to C:\Python27\Scripts
      Running setup.py install for pyreadline
        package init file 'pyreadline\configuration\__init__.py' not found (or not a regular file)
    
    Successfully installed ipython pyreadline
    Cleaning up...
  2. Windows の場合は C:\Python27\Scripts\ipython.exe へのショートカットを作成する。

IPythonの導入(Windows編)

  1. IPython: Productive Interactive Computing — IPythonDownload - IPythonより、最新バージョンのインストーラをダウンロードする。
    ここでは以下のファイルを使用する。
  2. ipython-x.xx.x.win32-setup.exe を実行してインストールを行う。
  3. pyreadline-x.x-win32-setup.exe を実行してインストールを行う。
  4. コマンドラインより動作確認を行う。
    > ipython
    C:\Python26\lib\site-packages\IPython\Magic.py:38: DeprecationWarning: the sets module is deprecated
      from sets import Set
    Python 2.6.2 (r262:71605, Apr 14 2009, 22:40:02) [MSC v.1500 32 bit (Intel)]
    Type "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
    
    IPython 0.9.1 -- An enhanced Interactive Python.
    ?         -> Introduction and overview of IPython's features.
    %quickref -> Quick reference.
    help      -> Python's own help system.
    object?   -> Details about 'object'. ?object also works, ?? prints more.
    
    In [1]:
  • 「DeprecationWarning: the sets module is deprecated」 は、sets モジュールが Python2.6 から非推奨であるため表示されている。
    2.6 は 3.0 への移行準備用バージョンであるためこのような警告が表示される。無視して構わない。
  • ここで ipython を実行しても以下のようなエラーになる場合
    > ipython
    'ipython' は、内部コマンドまたは外部コマンド、
    操作可能なプログラムまたはバッチ ファイルとして認識されていません。

C:\Python26;C:\Python26\Scripts; が環境変数のPATHに含まれていることを再度確認する。

python/ipython.txt · 最終更新: 2020/09/11 17:22 by ともやん